Yehuda Jacob Gilboa (May 2, 1920 – May 9, 2007, Košice, Slovakia) was born as Erwin Goldberg and is an Israeli composer.
Gilboa lived in Vienna, where he received training in playing the piano. In 1938 he emigrated to Palestine, where he initially studied in Haifa at the Institute for Technology. Starting in 1944 he studied at the Jerusalem Academy of Music with Josef Tal and Paul Ben-Haim. His participation in the Courses for New Music in Cologne in 1963 and 1964 under Karlheinz Stockhausen and Henri Pousseur made a strong impact on his style.
His best-known work is Twelve Glass Windows of Chagall in Jerusalem, for voice and instruments (1966). In addition, he composed Thistles, for horn, percussion, piano, and cello (1967), Pastels for two pianos, the piano suite Seven Little Insects (1956), and The Grey Colours of Käthe Kollwitz for mezzosoprano, chamber orchestra, and tape.
He died in Israel.